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Tigduda n Island

Island

Lýðveldið Ísland

Tamennaγt: Reykjavik  
Imezdaγ: 276 000 (1998)
Tutlayt tunṣibt: tislandit 
Taggayin yugten: Islandiyen (98 %) 
Taggayin tidersiyin (minoritaires): kra n trebbuyaε timecṭuḥin n iminigen
Anagraw asertan: tigduda tadukklant
Imagraden imendawiyen (tutlayt): Ula d yiwen umagrad ulac-it deg Tmendawt n 1944

Isaḍufen isnilsanen: Asaḍuf γef isensuyen d imukan usečči (1985) ; Asaḍuf γef temsulta (1996); Asaḍuf γef yismawen n yimdanen (1996); Asaḍuf γef temkarḍiwin (1997); Asaḍuf γef radyutinezwit (radiodiffusion) (2000); Asaḍuf γef iberraniyen  (2002); Aslagen (règlement) γef iberraniyen (2003); Asaḍuf γef igatuyen n usenkid (contrats d'assurance) (2004); Asaḍuf γef uselkem (exécution) n izarafen (jugements) (2005).

 

1 Tafesna tarakalit (situation géographique)

Carte : Islande

Tigduda n Island d tigzirt n ugafa n ugaraw Aṭlanṭi  (océan Atlantique) i d-yezgan gar n Gruland d Ecosse. D yiwet n tmurt tigzirit n 102 800 km² , tannuda (équivalant) n tjumma n Kuba, krad (03) tikwal tijumma n Belgique (30 527 km²), Wis-semmus (ciquième) n Franṣa (544 000 km²) neγ wis-kuz n umendi (province) n Lqaεa-Tamaynut (402 000 km²) di Kanada.

 

 

 

1 Tafesna tarakalit (situation géographique)

Carte : Islande

Tigduda n Island d tigzirt n ugafa n ugaraw Aṭlanṭi  (océan Atlantique) i d-yezgan gar n Gruland d Ecosse. D yiwet n tmurt tigzirit n 102 800 km² , tannuda (équivalant) n tjumma n Kuba, krad (03) tikwal tijumma n Belgique (30 527 km²), Wis-semmus (ciquième) n Franṣa (544 000 km²) neγ wis-kuz n umendi (province) n Lqaεa-Tamaynut (402 000 km²) di Kanada.

 

2 Isefka isnilsanen n imezdaγ (Données démolinguistiques)

Tamurt-a tamecṭuḥt tla ala 276 000 imezdaγ, i yettmeslayen akk yiwet n tutlayt tajirmanit n Ugafa ( tawsit taskandinabit) : Tislandit iwumi gan isem islanka. Island d yiwet deg tmura timsariyin (homogènes) n umaḍal acku imezdaγ-is ssawalen yiwet n tutlayt s 98%. Ulac tidersa (minorités) deg tmurt-a, maca seg mraw (10) neγ mraw d semmus (15) iseggasen akka γer deffir, kra n iminigiyen seg Spanya, seg Purtugal, maca abeεda seg Filipin, seg Ṭayland, seg Vietnam, seg Sri Lanka d Lhend, usan-d ad zedγen deg Island. Tidersa-yi timinigiyin urεad ur ftint, ur tgensisent (représentent) ala 2% deg imezdaγ islandiyen.

 

 2.1 Tislandit

Tutlayt tislandit teqqim d tamaẓlayt (particulière) γef waṭas n teγẓinin (raisons). Tislandit d yiwet n tutlayt taskundinabit am tdanwat, tasuyidwat, tanurvijit d tfiruyit, maca ma yella krad-nni n « tutlayin timenzawiyin » (continentales) (tadanwit, tasuyidwat d tnurvijit) qqiment d tutlayin yettwagzayen deg ugara-nsent, tislandit xaṭi. Ula d yiwen n umsawal n krad n tutlayin-a ur igezzu ur yeqqar tislandit, maca islandi, ma nefka-yas cwiṭ n tγuri d yidles, ifehhem yeqqar akk tutlayin tiskundinabiyin nniḍen, ula d tafiruyit, tutlat i ttmeslayen deg tigzirt n Feroe. Dacu kan, tislandit γur-s ugar n uẓar γer tfiruyit d kra n tmeslayin tinurvijiyin n umalu n Nurvij wala d tdanwat d tsuyidwat. Anzi-a (ressemblabce) nezmer ad t-id-negzu imi tutlayin-a yakk frurint-d seg yiwen uẓar, maca tislandit teḥrez yakk lexṣayeṣ-is timenzayin (principales) akken i llant seg timidi (lqern) tis XII neγ XIII.

Γer Udanwa, Asuyidwa neγ Anurviji, tutlayt tislandit tettaban-asen-d yeğğa-tt wakud s waṭas, ur tezmir ad tt-ttwigzu alma seld (deffir) n kra n welmad. Deg Island, agrud menwala yezmer ad d-iγer aḍris yuran deg timidi tis XII, war ma ssuqlen-as-t-id, d amedya d i yellan d awezγi γer wid nniḍen: Asuyidwa, ula γer Ufransis, Alalman, Aspenyuli..atg, izemren ad yeγren aḍris aqbur s tutlayt-is.

Tislandit d tutlayt taskandinabit am tdanwat, tanurvijit d tsuyidwat :

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Seg tutlayin tiskundinabiyin, d tislandit i yemgaraden s waṭas, sumek i d-teṭṭafar deffir-s tsuyidwat. Idanwaten, Inurvijiyen d Isuyidwaten ttemyegzayen deg ugara-sen s war ugur. Maca ula d yiwen seg imsawalen-a ur igezzu tislandit, dacu kan islandimesli (islandophon) igezzu s tefses krad n tutlayin-a.

Tislandit tettwassen d tutlayt taluγant (difficile), d tamerkantit deg umawal (ireṭṭalen iberraniyen ur tt-ḥuzan ara s waṭas), teččur s wawalen imaynuten idiganen (locaux), tajerrumt-is d tasemlalt (complexe) (krad n tewsitin n tjerrumt d kuz n tsuraf), agemmay-is d alaṭini rnan-as-d isekkilen nniḍen (am [æ], [ö], [ð] et [þ]), lmenṭeq-is yemgarad d win n tutlayin tiskandinabiyin nniḍen, atg. S umata, tislandit n imira teqqim meḥsub d tultlayt-nni tagafat (nordique) i ttmeslayen i Vigingen imezwura (Send aseggas 1000), mačči am tutlayin nniḍen tiskandinabiyin. Deg unamek-a, tutlayt-a d « asalay (musée) asnilsan amiddur » n tidet i yisnislsiyen.

Deg umezruy-is, amawal islandi yugem-d amḍan meqqren n wawalen. Γas kra n wawalen rnan-asen-d inumak imaynuten, maca inumak n tuget n wawalen yettwasseqdacen di tudert n yal ass qqimen d wid d wid ara ass-a : höfuð («aqerruy»), auga («tiṭ»), himinn («igenni»), haf («illel»), þú («kečč»), kýr («tafunast»), gras («leḥcic»), móðir («tayemmat»), faðir («ababat»), ganga («ddu»), atg. D tidet, tislandit yettwaḥettem fell-as lḥal ad tesnulfu aṭas n wawalen imaynuten i wakken ad terr i yiḥewwiğen n umawal atrar. S umata, awalen-a imaynuten ttwakksen-d seg wawalen neγ seg umur (partie) n kra n wawalen i yellan yakan. Di taggara, tislandit tugem-d daγen seg tutlayin nniḍen, abeεda seg tutlayin tiskandinabiyin d teglizit , seg kra n iseggasen akka.

Dacu kan, Island d tamurt deg wanda meḥsub ulac yakk tantiliwin (dialectes), d ayen ur yugiten ara deg umaḍal ad tafeḍ tamurt tahrawant, imezdaγ-is mcuyyaren yakk, ur tettwagzem ara γef temnaḍin anda yal tamnaḍt tesεa tantala-ynes.

2.2 Iminigiyen d iberraniyen

Seg iberraniyen i izedγen Island, ma tekkseḍ iserdasen imarikaniyen, taggayin i yugten gan-ten iγermanen (citoyens) n tmura-yi : Puluny (17,9 %), Danmark (8,4 %), Yuguslavi n zik (6,3 %), Filippin (6,1 %), Lalman (5,1 %), Iwanken-Yeddukklen (4,8 %), Ṭayland (4,6 %), Litwani (4 %), Purtugal (3,4 %) d Tgelda-Yeddukklen (3,2 %).

3 Isefka imazrayen

Tigzirt tislandit di tazwara ufan-tt-id Irlandiyen deg timidi wis VIII, maca tettwasexdem u tettwasteεmer s Ivikingen inurvijiyen deg 874. Tamnaḍt n Reykjavik bih bih teεmer, u Igziriyen (insulaires) sbedden-d tamurt tamaynut, i yekfan s lebni deg leğwayeh n 930, imi meḥsub yakk akal ittumeyyalen yettwahres (yettwasteεmer). Amni (parlement), win isemman Althing, yennulfa-d deg 970 i wakken ad islugen (réglementer) ayen yuγalen d « tagelda tamenzut n umaḍal », i ilan azal n 20 000 imezdaγ. Akken tuget seg imnekcamen-a imenza usan-d yakk seg unẓul-amalu n Nurvij (Vestfold, Agder, Trøndelag), wiyeḍnin γas ula d nutni d Ivikingen unagen γer tigzirin tibriṭaniyin, d tantala-yi n tutlayt tagafat taqburt, i yuγalen d tislandit, i ittwaḥettmen d tutlayt i yesseqdacen medden. Deg iba (absence) n kra n tgelda, amni islandi yessuffuγ-d isaḍufen s tislandit u yesseqdac-itt daγen deg teγdemt (justice). Awanek (état) yessaweḍ ad yeṭṭef azal n krad n twinas (300) iseggasen, yessaweḍ ad yehres meḥsub yakk Gruland s Irik Azggaγ deg 984, yiwen Uviking ilan iẓuran islandiyen, i ireṣṣan tihras (colonies) deg iri (côte) asammar, deg izuγar anda yezmer yiwen ad yessimγer tifunasin. Deg mraw iseggasen imenza, 80% n imadaγen yellan ttwakksent i wakken ad d-uγalent d amkan n tkessawt neγ d asγar i wezγal, d asγar i lebni neγ d lefḥem n wesγar.

Islandiyen suddsen iman-nsen deg yiwet n tmetti ifazen s waṭas, gan yiwet n tsekla d timgerrezt, asmi fernen ad arun s isekkilen ilaṭiniyen i d-tewwi tmsgida takatulikit seg useggas 1000. D tidet, Island teqqim ar assa musnawet s isagaten-is (sagas) n timida tis X d tis XI, tullizin s tesrit (récit en prose) yuran s tutlayt-nni n imiren-nni. Amyaru Snorri Sturlusson (1179-1241) i d amyaru yakk yettwassnen ugar. Yura-d abeεda Heimskringla, yiwet n tullizt yesmucuhen γef tedyanin n igelliden n Nurvij, d Edda (isefra imasaden (héroïques)). Yerna, timεayin d tmucuha i d-yesmucuhen γef wid i d-yuγalen, γef tteryalat d iwaγezniwen sεant aṭas n wazal deg yidles islandi. Tefruri-d seg tutlayt tagafat taqburt, tettwaεzel imi s-d-zzin waman, tislandit ur tnerni ara s waṭas am umedya n tnurvijit, tin γef wacu i d-εeddan waṭas n isniflen isnilsanen (changements linguistiques).

3.1 Aγmar (domination) adanwa

Sinakkin, deg 1262, Island tuγal sselḥawent Inurvijiyen, maca nezmer ad d-nini tesεa cwiṭ n tedsimant. Islandiyen γilen belli agellid ibeεden, win n Nurvij, ur yelli ara d amaεur, wad asen-d-yefk ugar n tedsimant. Maca tasehrest-a tanurvijit, i yeqqimen almi d aseggas n 1397, tella d yiwet n tallit n tenhawt (décadence) i Island, almi d asmi tagelda tanurvijit teγli s ddaw n tnaya (souveraineté) n tesmert (couronne) tadanwat deg useggas n 1397, di lawan-nni n Tiddukla n Kalmar. Γas akken frurint-d deg yiwen uẓar, tanurvijit d tislandit uγalent yal ta iman-is.

S tiddukla n Kalmar, Nurvij tegla-d s wayen tesεa deg ugafa n Aṭlanṭik : Island, tigzirin n Feroe d Gruland. Tiddukla n Kalmar d askar n yiwet n tgelda s usddukel n Danmark, n Suyid d Nurvij, krad n tmura-yi (deg-sent Island) ad ttwiḥekment s ugellid adanwa. Tagellidt Margerit I teqher Danmark, Nurvij d Suyid, u deg 1397, di Kalmar, tesres mmi-s n gma-s Irik n Purimani d agellid n Tiddukla. Wa ur ibeddu ara leḥkem s timmad-is almi d aseggas n 1412, imi yesserfa Isuyidwaten, dγa ffγen-as-d tamadaγt deg 1434. Tiddukla d Suyid tekfa deg 1521-1523, imi Gustav Eriksson yessuffeγ Idanwaten, dγa yerra iman-is d Agellid n Suyid. Maca tiddukla d Nurvij tkemmel almi d 1814. Deg tallit-a, gar n 1402 d 1404, aṭṭan n tterka taberkant tenγa azal n snat deg tis-krad (2/3) n imezdaγ islandiyen. Dγa deg umezruy, islandiyen ur sliken ara seg waṭas n tiksrar tigmawiyin (catastrophes naturelles). S teγzi n mraw n tmida, Island werğin tezri (tεedda) 70 000 imezdaγ.

 3.2 Tuṭṭfa deg tutlayt tislandit

S teγzi n tallit-a yakk, seg 1397 d 1814, Islandiyen sseqdacen tutlayt-nsen deg tudert n yal ass, rnu-yas taywalt (communication) d Danmark tella s drus maḍi. Ma yella deg timawit tella tettwasseqdac, tislandit teğğa amkan i tdanwat deg usemres n tira.  Daγen s teγzi n Tallit Talemmast (Moyen Âge) i d-tennulfa tsekla i yeddren almi d ass-a. Mačči kan d tasekla « tamusnawt » am wungalen n tgelda d iserdasen, maca daγen d isnulfuyen i d-yuγen aẓar seg tira taklasikit n inmezrayen d tmeddurin n llawliya n tallit-nni, tid yellan di tazwara s tlaṭinit, maca rran-ten-d Islandiyen γer tutlayt-nsen. Tira-yi d tazeddgant d agerruj, gan-as isem n « isagaten ». Γef aya, llan kra qqaren-d belli Island d « asalay (musée) n teqburin tiskandinabiyin ». ur ntettu ara belli tasekla-yi yakk tura s tislandit, s tutlayt i yeqqimen akken tella zik-nni, aya yella-d cil (malgré) Idanwaten i inudan s kra yellan d abrid amek ara ḥettmen tadanwat.

Deg 1530, Idanwaten skecmen-d neγ ḥettmen-d tasreḍt (ddin) talutirit (luthérienne) deg tigzirt, ayen i d-yesbanayen aγmar ameqqran n tutlayt tadanwat. Islandiyen εerḍen s tidet ad nnaγen mgal tasreḍt tadanwat, maca di taggara bran-as i tesreḍt takatulikit war ma ğğan tutlayt-nsen. Mgal akk n wayen nettraju, tislandit teqqim d tin d tin, nezmer ad d-nini ur tumis ara yakk s tutlayt tadanwat, aεzal-is arakali (géographique) d wansay aseklan (tradition littéraire) iğehden d nutni, war asurdu (sans doute) i d asegger (garantie) n « tezdeg » n talγa-s, yerna arraw-is rẓan aṭas aqerruy-nsen deg uγawas (plan) n umawal. Maca aya yeεna kan tira n tutlayt d tjerrumt, ma d ayen icudden γer ususru (lmenṭeq) anagraw (système) yenveddal s waṭas γef wasmi yella deg tallit-nni n tutlayt tagafat yedduklen. Sinakkin, Idanwaten ḥettmen-d yiwen unagraw amzenzi (système commercial) i isruḥen i Yislandiyen tadsimant-nsen tadamsant (autonomie économique).

Deg tmidi tis XVIII, Island tuγal d tasγit (victime) n waṭṭanen, n uṭerḍeq s tmes n idurar, n llaẓ d tezγent tadamsant (crise économique) meqqren i d-tesker « Tkebbanit tadanwat n Island », i yeṭṭfen imiren-nni tanezzut (commerce) s ddaw ifassen-is. Γef iεewwiqen i s-d-ihettem Danmark, Island meḥsub tegzem yakk assaγen-is idamsanen (relations économiques) d tigzirin tibriṭaniyin d Iwanken ijirmaniyen.

Deg 1814, Tiddukla yellan gar Danmark d Nurvij tebḍa, u sin Iwanken-a uγalen d ilelliyen. Aẓayer asertan (statut politique) n Island yenbeddal, yuγal yerra-d amni islandi, Althing, dacu kan amni-a yessaweḍ ala γer wenqad abruyan (contrôle partiel) γef tiẓraf-is n baylik (finances publiques). Tadsimant tasertant tagenna (autonomie politique interne) ur tt-id-yewwi ara almi d aseggas n 1904 ; dγa « tettwakemmel » s yiwen usaḍuf n Tiddukla d Danmark deg 1918, agellid n Danmark yeḥrez azwel-is (titre) n ugellid n Island.

Almi d tallit-a, ulac yakk iγerbazen anda isselmaden s tislandit, maca γas akken-nni arrac yakk ssnen ad arun ad γren s tutlayt-a. Ala tadanwat i yettwasγarayen, tislandit teqqim kan d ayla n wexxam ; imawlan yakk sselmaden i warraw-nsen taγuri d tira s tislandit. Aγerbaz amenzu ur yettwaḥettem ara almi d 1913.

Ayen yessebhaten, tamurt-a d tin i d-yessekren aṭas n imyura d wawal, am Jonas Hallgrimsson (1807-1845), Jon Thoroddsen (1819-1868), Johan Sigurjonson (1880-1919), Steinn Steinarr (1908-1958), Gunnar Gunnarsson (1889-1974) d umeqqran imeqqranen Halldór Laxness, win i d-yewwin arraz n Nobel deg 1955. Laxness ibeddel ilugan (règles) n tira, yessemres awalen n yal ass, yesnulfa-d awalen d imaynuten, yesseqdec ula d awalen iberraniyen. Yura ugar n kuz n tmerwin (40) n yidlisen (ammud n tullizin d isefra, ungalen, ticeqqufin n umezgun, atg.) yerna yettwasuqel γer wazal n krad n tmerwin (30) n tutlayin.

3.3 Anekcum n Lalman d Iwanken-Yedduklen

Deg ussan n Umgaru Amaḍlan wis-sin, Danmark, s timmad-is yettwaẓdem s igen (armée) alalmani, yeğğa Island teγli deg 1940. Inaziyen n Reich Wis-krad slemden i wegdud tasekla tislandit. Ttwalin-tt am akken ula d nutni ttayalen deg-s, dγa qqaren-d dakken tettekka deg yidles ameqqran ajirmani. Asaḍen (héros) ijirmaniyen am Siegfried ittnaγen mgal waγzen ttawin-ten d cciεa. Aγbel, ad d-naf belli aṭas n yisaḍen-a irumantikiyen i nγil d « ijirmaniyen » γur-sen aẓar deg unsay islandi ; ula d Richard Wagner, deg isefra-s imasaḍen i mucaεen yugem-d tahregt-is (inspiration) seg tullizin n tsekla tislandit.

Umbeεd tamurt iḍḍur-itt unekcum nniḍen d amaynut : win n Imarikaniyen. Dγa, deg useggas n 1940, imi tella Island tettwazdeγ ala s 126000 n yimdanen, 50 000 iserdasen imarikaniyen rsen-d sufella n tigzirt i wakken ad nnaγen mgal afuden n Hitler. Tihawt (présence) yugten n yigen amarikani d ayen ara ibeddlen udem n tmurt, dγa d ayen idemmren aṭas n yimdanen ad ğğen tuddar-nsen wad d-ṣubben γer temdint d tuddar yellan deg yiri n yillel, aṭas deg-sen qesden Reykjavik, tamennaγt, snernayen deg tdamsa akken i tt-id-ḥettmen iqnucen (intérêt) n Iwanken-Yedduklen. Rnu-yas, Island tella ur tesεi ara taγsert n tiliẓri (station de télévision), dγa tisin n tiliẓri tamarikanit ibeddel yakk tanummi tasnilsant n imezdaγ n tigzirt. Deg kra n iseggasen, taγsert n tiliẓri tamarikanit tuzen-d seg Island yiwet n tugna ixuṣṣen nezzeh : kran n « boys » (imarikaniyen) yettwaḥettem fell-asen ad inigen γer yiwet n tmurt tebεed tessewḥac, imezdaγ-is ttmeslayen yiwet n « tantala » taskandinabit n Tallit Talemmast ur yettwagzayen ara. Deg « unekcum amarikani », taglizit teṭṭef amḍiq n tdanwat deg usemres unṣib, maca « iserwen » (autochtone) kemmlen tameslayt n « tantala »-nsen. 

Asaḍuf n Tiddukla n 1918 yuγal d asentel n wallus (aεiwed) n tmuγli seld (deffir) 25 iseggasen, nnan dakken asaḍuf-a yezmer ad yettwikkes ma yella yequdder kra n tewtilin (conditions). Asaḍuf yeqqar-d yessefk ad ilin krad deg kuz n imuren n tefranin i d-yettwasenfalin ad qeblen s waya. Amni islandi yessuddes-d deg 1944 tifranin n uciwer γef uzarug (indépendance). Tuttra i d-fkan i Yislandiyen tezzi γef usentel-a : « Althing d netta ara yeddmen taγtest (décison) ad d-yini belli asaḍuf n Tiddukla n Danmark d Island n 1918 dayen tettwakkes. » Amnar-a (seuil) εeddan-as s waṭas : IH yewwi 98,6% deg imesla yettwasenfalin. Island tuγal ar uzarug-is unṣib, ass n 17 yunyu 1944, imi agmuḍ (résultat) n tefranin ur d-yeğği ula d cwiṭ akka n usurdu γef temsalt-a. Aγmar amarikani yekfa, tigduda tamaynut n Island ur teγtis (décide) ara di tmendawt ad tili tislandit d tutlayt tunṣibt. Di tilawt, Islandiyen urεad ur heyyan ara iman-nsen i wakken ad sqedcen tislandit i yiswiyen unṣiben (fins officielles), acku tutlayt werğin tettwasemres i waya.

Di taggara n wemgaru, d anemgal n wayen ireggmen, Iwanken-Yedduklen ur yejbid ara igen-is seg Island. Yerna, anabaḍ (lḥukuma) amarikani iḥettem-d tihawt (présence) i lebda n izaduren iserdasen (bases militaires) deg wakal n tmurt. Zdat n wurfan n Islandiyen, ufan-d yiwen n umtawa (accord) deg 1946 : yessuref i Yimarikaniyen ad neqden (contrôler) anafag (aéroport) n Keflavik azal n sdis (06) iseggasen d wezgen. Deg 1951, Iwanken-Yedduklen ssawḍen win-d urag (ttesriḥ) sγur Island i wakken kra n trebbuyaε ad reṣṣint deg wakal-is, s ddaw n tecḍaḍt n OTAN. Dacu kan, areṣṣi-ya n tirebbuyaε timarikaniyin , werğin yettwagzem seg 1941, yella d asentel i yebḍan ugar n tsuta (génération) n Yislandiyen.  Aceyyeε amenzu n tedwilt n tiliẓri s tislandit yella-d deg useggas n 1966. Akken tella teswiεt ass-a, nezmer ad negzu belli Islandiyen meḥsub ssawalen yakk taglizit d… tdanwat.

Deg umtawa yettwastenyan deg 1994 d Wachington, ur d-yegri tura deg umḍan n iserdasen-nni n Wemgaru Amaḍlan wis-2 ala azadur n Kelfavik d kra n 2800 n iserdasen imarikaniyen, wid i wumi fkan, deg ukatar (cadre) n OTAN, tuγḍaṭ (mission) n usḥirbeb γef tigzirt. Yessefk ad d-nesmekti belli Island ur tesεi ara igen, ala 200 iεessasen n yiriyen i yesḥirbiben γef waman-is. Tihawt tamarikanit, i ineγsen, yettban-d dakken tuget seg imezdaγ qeblen yes-s. D ayen yessebhaten imi tutlayt tamecṭuḥt tislandit tessaweḍ ad teṭṭef zdat n tezrirt (influence) tamarikanit, d ayen ur nelli γer tutlayin nniḍen am tnurvijit, tasuyidwat d tdanwat. Mačči kan akka imi deg yakk isura iberraniyen yessefk ad tili s ddaw-as tsuqqilt s tira tislandit. Maca llan kra n ikabbaren n tama tazelmaḍt, am Tiseγt (alliance) n weγref, mazal-iten ar tura ssuturen tuzzma n uzadur n Keflavik d wejbad n Island seg OTAN.

4 Tasertit tasnilsant « s ummumi » (volontariste)

Deg uzarug n 1944, Islandiyen ufan-d iman-nsen i tikkelt tamenzut d ilelliyen ad sqedcen tutlayt-nsen deg yiswiyen unṣiben. Maca d tamsalt n waṭas iseggasen. Yessefk-asen ad sbedden tismal (commissions) n umawal ara yerren tislandit d tatrart, tin yeqqimen d tin n Tallit Talemmast, ma ulac yakk deg wayen icudden γer tiγula tussnanin d tikinikin (domaines scientifiques et techniques).

4.1 Tangalt (code) tasnilsant

Anbaḍen islandiyen yemgaraden hettmen i yiγerbazen asselmed n wawalen imaynuten i yineγmasen ad ten-sqedcen. Yessefk ad nẓer beli deg Island, Isnilsiyen n wanbaḍ xeddmen s waṭas i wakken ad d-snulfun awalen islandiyen wad rewlen i yireṭṭalen seg tdanwat d teglizit. Iswi n tesmilt (commission) n tutlayt tislandit  iban am yiṭij : tarewla γef wawalen igliziyen d usislandi (islandisation) n umawal, ama deg uγerbaz, deg inukan (luzinat) neγ deg tγamsa.

Tamsalt-a tella yakan seg tmidi tis XVIII. D tidet, yiwen n « usaḍuf asnilsan » yeffeγ-d di tallit-nni yegdel (interdire) asekcem n wawalen iberraniyen, amedya deg adeg ad sqedcen awalen itiknikiyen d ussnanen igraγlanen (internationnaux) –γas akken aẓar-nsen d igrigiyen neγ d ilaṭinyen-, isnilsiyen n tallit-nni suffuγen-d awal seg wawalen islandiyen, dγa ttaddamen-d awalen i yettun medden neγ seg iẓuran iqburen n tutlayt. Akka tasmilt n umawal i d-tessumer (proposer) awal n simi yellan yesεa anamek n « wassaγ » (lien) neγ « imceyyeε », tura yuγal γer medden yakk d « tilifun ». I wakken ad d-ssilγen (former) awal ara yesεun anamek n uselkim (ordinateur), sdukklen völva (« tagezzant » s unamek-is ufrir (positif)) d uzwir t- (i d-yesmektayen asiḍen (leḥsab), dγa yennulfa-d wawal tölva (« aselkim »). Tislandit tesseqdac sími i « tilifun »,  símbréf i «faks», hugbúnaður  i «aseγẓan» (logiciel), vélbúnaður  i «arrum» (matériel) (hardware), atg.

Assa, anagraw yettεassan γef tezdeg tasnilsant iqeddec s yiwet n tγara, almi ula d taγamsa tettraju s tteqlaq awalen imaynuten yal tikkelt mi ara d-ffγen, akka meqqar ur ten-tettarra ara tmara ad sqedcen awalen n teglizit. Γer kra n iγbula (sources), aya yuγal amzun d « tasreḍt » deg uγref islandi. Dγa, deg tmurt-a, isnilsiyen ḥesben-ten am « imusnawen » yesḥirbibeb γef tezdeg n tutlayt, mačči am iqeddacen « ur yesεin nnfeε », ṭṭfen kan amḍiq-nsen qqimen.

Taẓengart-a (attitude) n uḥraz nezmer ad tt-id-negzu s umezruy aγezzfan amaẓlay (particulier) n Yislandiyen, acku tettwaqqen γer twennaṭ-nsen tuḍεift. Seld mraw iseggasen imenza n umezruy-nsen, win yettuγaḍen cwiṭ, Islandiyen εerḍen ad seggmen addad-nsen, maca isniflen (changements) meḥsub zgan tettin γer tkesrar (catstrophes). Dγa anbaḍen idanwaten, i iḥekmen Island seld 1397, zgan ttafen-d iεewwiqen d uγanzi sγur imezdaγ idiganen (locaux) mi ara εerḍen ad d-afen tirezma (solutions) i yiγeblan n igziriyen. Later n tkesrar izrin mazal-it ara assa yettban-d s talγa n imukan iburen neγ yerγan,  n tebḥirin tiqburin i ttun medden neg d timnaḍin d tihrawanin mmeččent yakk. Deg tirmitin-a (expériences) yakk, Islandiyen ssawḍen ad gzun ma yella bγan ad selken si nger, yessefk ur ttbeddilen ula d kra, d wa kan i d abrid yufraren. Akka igan daγen d tutlayt-nsen : d assinsay (traditionnalisme). Tamurt-a, i yella zik d tamurt tigellilt yakk di Turuft (Europe), tuγal ass-a deg tmura timerkantiyin n umaḍal, ma ulac yakk deg ayen icudden γer lγella γef yal amezdaγ. Deg unamek-a, Island d tamacahut timgerrezt n tesmurest (réussite).

 4.2 Ismawen n yimdanen